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Who Were The Celts? A No-BS Guide To Their History And Origin

Who Were The Celts? A No-BS Guide To Their History And Origin
‘Hey – I’ve just read a Celtic Symbol guide and I’ve a question… Who were the Celts.. were they Irish?’

Since publishing a detailed guide to Celtic symbols and their meanings a year or so ago, we’ve had 150+ questions about the ancient Celts.

Questions like ‘Where did the Celts come from?’ and ‘what did the Celts look like?’ hit our inboxes on a weekly basis, and have done for quite some time.

So, in an attempt to educate both myself and those of you that visit this site, I’ve spent many an hour researching everything from the origin of the Celts to what they ate.

You’ll find a factual, easy-to-follow and no-BS guide to the Celts in the guide below! Dive on in and let me know if you have a question in the comments section!

Who Were the Celts?

what did the celts look like

Photo by Gorodenkoff (Shutterstock)

The ancient Celts weren’t Irish. They weren’t Scottish, either. In fact, they were a collection of people/clans from Europe that are identified by their language and cultural similarities.

They existed in a number of different areas in Europe north of the Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age onwards, thanks to their frequent migration over the years.

They were given the name ‘Celts’ by ancient writers. It’s thought that a Greek geographer, named Hecataeus of Miletus, was the first to use the name in 517 BC when he was writing about a group living in France.

Below, you’ll discover a heap of information to help you understand who were the Celts, what they believed, what they ate and much more.

Quick Facts About the Celts

If you’re stuck for time, I’ve popped together some need-to-know facts about the Celts that should bring you up to speed quickly:

  • The first record of the existence of the Celts dates back to 700 BC
  • The Celts were not ‘one people’ – they were a collection of tribes
  • Contrary to popular belief, they weren’t from Ireland or Scotland
  • The Celts are thought to have arrived in Ireland around 500 BC
  • Ogham was a Celtic script that was used in Ireland from the 4th century
  • The Celts lived across much of Europe
  • They were fierce warriors (they beat the Romans on a number of occasions)
  • The use of storytelling was brought to Ireland by the Celts (this gave birth to Irish mythology and Irish folklore)

Where did the Celts come from originally?

The exact origin of the Celts is a topic that causes a lot of heated debate online. Although it’s widely believed that Celtic culture dates as far back as 1200 BC, their exact origin is unknown. 

There are many strong links to suggest that they came from an area close to the Upper Danube River but, again, this is disputed.

What language did the Celts speak?

The Celts contributed greatly to European culture and language. Now, don’t get me wrong, it wasn’t that those already living in Europe couldn’t communicate effectively, but the Celts language was adopted relatively quickly by many ‘non-Celts’.

It’s thought that the Celtic language gained momentum as they travelled, traded and communicated with various different people.

The Celtic language belongs to what’s known as the ‘Indo-European’ family of languages. In the years that followed 1000 BC, the language spread to Turkey, Scotland, Switzerland and Iberia. 

The language began to die out (literally…) after 100 BC, after Roman conquests in Portugal, Spain, France and England. In the years that followed, the language slowly began to whittle away. However, it survived in a number of places, like Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Where did the Celts live?

The Celts didn’t just live in one place – they were a group of tribes that were spread right the way across Europe. The Celts were known for migrating. Over the years, they were known to reside in Ireland, Britain, Frace, Scotland, Wales, Turkey and France and many more places.

When did the Celts arrive in Ireland?

Now, this is another (yes, I know…) topic that tends to cause heated debate. When the Celts arrived in Ireland is unclear, for a very definitive reason.

Before Christianity arrived in Ireland, there were no written accounts of history. With that being said, there is sign of Celtic influence in Ireland between the years 800BC and 400BC.

What did the Celts look like?

It’s believed that the Celts were well-groomed, a belief that would appear to be backed up by the discovery of a number of tools that were used for cutting hair and, presumably, beards.

The men wore a tunic that stretched down to their knees along with a pair of trousers that were called ‘Bracae’. 

Women are known to have worn long, loose-fitting dresses made from linen that was woven from the flax that they grew.

What religion were they?

The Celts were what’s known as ‘Polytheists’, which means that they believed in a number of different gods and goddesses. 

There wasn’t one central religion that the many different groups of Celts followed. In fact, different groups of Celts held different beliefs.

If you read our guide to Celtic symbols, you’ll see that many of the designs that they created were closely linked to spirituality.

What happened to the Celts?

Many of the Celts were brought under the control of the Roman Empire. The Celts that resided in the north of Italy were conquered at the start of the second century.

Those living in parts of Spain were dominated over the course of a number of wars that took place during the first and second centuries.

The Gauls (a group of ancient Celts living in France) were conquered towards the latter end of the second century and during the middle of the first century.

Over a number of centuries of Roman rule in Britain, the Celts lost their language and much of their culture, as they were forced to adopt the Roman way.

What did the Celts eat?

The Celts maintained a diet like many Europeans at the time and survived mainly on grains, meat, fruits and vegetables. 

It’s widely accepted that the Celts in Ireland were skilled farmers and lived off of the produce of their work. They reared sheep and cattle, from which they would get milk, butter, cheese and, eventually, meat.

Were the Celts Irish?

Although many assume that the Celts came from Ireland, this isn’t the case. Although some groups of Celts did travel and live on the island of Ireland, they were not from Ireland.

An Easy-to-Follow History of the Celts

history of the celts

Photo by Bjoern Alberts (Shutterstock)

The ancient Celts were a collection of people that originated in central Europe and that shared similar culture, language and beliefs.

Over the years, the Celts migrated. They spread across Europe and set up shop everywhere from Turkey and Ireland to Britain and Spain.

The first record of the origin of the Celts was in documentation kept by the Greeks, and it cited their existence to around 700 BC. We can take it for granted that these ancient people existed long before this.

Enter the Romans

The Celts were fierce warriors and, by the 3rd century BC, they had a stronghold on a large chunk of Europe, north of the Alps.

Then the Roman Empire set off on a conquest to expand their control on Europe. Under the leadership of Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC, the Romans killed large numbers of Celts, wiping out their language and culture in many parts of Europe.

One of the countries that Ceasar tried to invade at the time was Britain, but his attempt fell flat. This is why Celtic traditions and language survived in many parts of Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

Who were the Celts? Wrapping it up!

I realise that the above is a very speedy history of the Celts. It’s intended to help you gain a quick understanding of who they were and to offer some insight into their past.

The Celts didn’t live the way many of us perceive that they did – up until a few years ago I genuinely believed that the majority of Celts lived in the one location.

That couldn’t have been further than the truth. The Celts were a loose collection of tribes and communities that came together for trading, defence and worship.

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Thursday 1st of September 2022

This was an informative and quick lesson on the Celts. My family is from Scotland and I cherish my Scottish heritage. Thanks!


Wednesday 24th of August 2022

Found the information interesting I was born in England , my Dad was born in Ireland and my mum was Welsh , I speak a little Welsh , I done my dna and I was not totally surprised, of the results although my dads side were Irish , but a Scottish surname it turned out that I have 20% Irish 20% Scottish which make sense , and 51% Welsh and the rest is north western are French , the English or most of them are of Celtic stock


Thursday 11th of August 2022

Great synopsis! Being Irish I always assumed I was a Celt DOH!!!

Dorothy Williams

Wednesday 15th of June 2022

I am confused about my Celtic Irish background. My father's mama was Dorothy Winifred Cassidy. Her mother was Alice Mary Condon. My great grandfather, Patrick Cassidy drank himself to death, but my reasoning is he was a Type 1 Diabetic and there was no insulin. He died young. The Condon Irish family escaped many diseases and my great grandmother, Alice Mary Condon lived to age 94. My father died from Type 1 Diabetes at age 50. He had his leg amputated, almost went blind, kidney disease and he contracted Microscopic Colitis. Both diseases are autoimmune. He was a sick man. I call it the "Cassidy Curse."

I am also sick. I have Type 1 Diabetes, Celiac Disease, Microscopic Colitis and Hypo Thyrodism which are all autoimmune diseases. I am sicker than my father. I inherited Celiac Disease and Spasmodic Torticollis from my mama and the rest is from my father's side. My mother is from a family of 11 children and most had Celiac Disease. My great grandfather Benjamin Sparks had close to 36 children. He was a co-sharecropper in rural Georgia and needed hands to pick the cotton, tobacco, and food to eat.The more kids the better! I am related to everybody including Sam Elliott who has Spasmodic Torticollis and his mama's name is Mammie Sparks. Everyone get this disease except blacks. Whites don't get Sickle Cell Anemia which is common in the blacks.

Your article is interesting but I am still baffled. I have done my DNA with Ancestry and 23andMe and found out I am 33% Irish, mostly British, French Huguenots, Dutch, German, and black. It also shows I have Turkish blood and Asian blood.I've been told I look like Connie Chung.

I read another article that stated the Celts came from Italy. I do have on my Ancestry Tree some Bassamo ancestors who played music for King Henry VIII. He had a mistress I am related who had a child by the king.

I'm unable to obtain birth and death records of my Irish background since they were burned. My Irish percentage would be higher if I could obtain them, but naught.

Yesterday, I went to a gluten-free store and bought a gluten-free cake for church Sunday. I asked the young fella if he was gluten intolerant and he said "no, my mom is gluten intolerant." I asked him, is she Irish?" He said "no, we're Italian."

This southern gal is gettin' a little long in the tooth, so I will stop.

Can you help me with the Celtics? I am confused. Thanks, Dorothy Rockwell Williams

Marcela López

Saturday 16th of April 2022

Thanks for the interesting información. I would love to visit Northern Europe, Sweden, Denmark, Ireland, saludos!

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